Instruments & Instrumentation
Adv. Sci. Technol. Eng. Syst. J. 1(6), 1-4 (2016);
This paper is an outcome of a case study conducted at the Universiti Teknologi Brunei in order to measure students’ perceptions of the library services offered in the university library. The main objectives were to identify the purpose of the library visit and to find out the service quality of university library, to determine whether digital libraries can replace traditional libraries and to explore if there is correlation between the frequency of the students visit to the library with the service quality provided and also the collection of materials in the library. A total of 142 students were randomly selected from the institution for the purpose of the study. Questionnaire was used as the main instrument for gathering data. The findings of the study shows that 40% of the students visit the library on weekly basis and 78 % of the students visit the library to study and 70% of the students visit the library for group discussion. In terms of the service quality, the study reveals that 79% of the students rated the service as good, very good and excellent. The study also reveals that 46% of the students rated the collection of materials in the library is average and 40% of the students rated them as good. Majority of the students (54%) reported that digital library can replace the traditional libraries. The analysis shows that there is no correlation and relationship between the visit of the students to the library and the service quality and the collections of materials in the library. The students recommended only to vary the genre of books available in the library.
Fair allocation of risks in conditions of contract is pivotal for coordination, unhindered execution, dispute resolution and maintenance of positive relationship among the parties executing the contract. Pakistani construction industry despite subcontracting a large percentage of construction projects lacks standard conditions of subcontract and they are primarily based on the will of the prime contractor that is onerous for the subcontractor. Therefore in order to develop a model for the general conditions of subcontract in Pakistan the conditions proposed by Associated General Contractors of California, FIDIC in 1994 and 2011, Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia, American Institute of Architects and by the Government of Hong Kong were compared to determine the similarities and differences among them. Afterwards a questionnaire based on the significant provisions of these subcontracts was conducted in the construction industry of Pakistan to determine the appropriate conditions for model subcontract. The results of the survey were further subjected to discussions with the legal experts. Out of 35 suggestions made for the general conditions of subcontract 23 originated from FIDIC in which 20 are recommended by its 2011’s version. It can therefore be implemented in Pakistan with certain amendments and additions as proposed in light of conditions of other subcontracts and the results of the survey and discussions with legal experts.